Particulars Description
Location Pakistan is positioned in the Middle East, a recognized geographical region of southwestern Asia, and is situated in both the northern and eastern hemispheres.
Geographic coordinates 30.3753° N, 69.3451° E
Pakistan Standard Time GMT +5
Telephone Country Code +92
Border Countries Pakistan is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, and Iran to the southwest while China borders the country in the northeast
Coastline Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and its Gulf of Oman in the south
Climate Pakistan lies in the temperate zone, immediately above the tropic of cancer. The climate varies from tropical to temperate. Arid conditions exist in the coastal south, characterized by a monsoon season with adequate rainfall and a dry season with lesser rainfall, while abundant rainfall is experienced by the province of Punjab, and wide variations between extremes of temperature at given locations. Rainfall varies from as little as less than 10 inches a year to over 150 inches a year, in various parts of the nation. These generalizations should not, however, obscure the distinct differences existing among particular locations. For example, the coastal area along the Arabian Sea is usually warm, whereas the frozen snow-covered ridges of the Karakoram Range and of other mountains of the far north are so cold year-round that they are only accessible by world-class climbers for a few weeks in May and June of each year. Pakistan has four seasons: a cool, dry winter marked by mild temperatures from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. The onset and duration of these seasons vary somewhat according to location. The climate in the capital city of Islamabad varies from an average daily low of 5 °C (41.0 °F) in January to an average daily high of 40 °C (104 °F) in June. Half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August, averaging about 300 millimeters (11.81 in) in each of those two months. The remainder of the year has significantly less rain, amounting to about 100 millimeters (3.94 in) per month. Hailstorms are common in early spring. Pakistan’s largest city, Karachi, which is also the country’s industrial center, is more humid than Islamabad but gets significantly less rainfall. Only July and August average more than 50 millimeters (1.97 in) of rainfall in the Karachi area; the remaining months are exceedingly dry with little rainfall. The temperature is also more uniform in Karachi than in Islamabad, ranging from an average daily low of 13 °C (55.4 °F) during winter evenings to an average daily high of 34 °C (93.2 °F) on summer days. Although the summer temperatures do not get as high as those in Punjab, the high humidity causes the residents a great deal of discomfort.
Terrain Divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the center and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west
Natural Resources Water resources, Fuel resources, Agriculture, Fishery, Forestry, Mining
Environment – Current Issues Water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification.
Environment – International Agreements Pakistan is a party to several international agreements related to environment and climate, the most prominent among them are:

Treaties and Agreements

Specific Regions and Seas Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution (MARPOL 73/78)
Atmosphere and Climate Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection, Nuclear Test Ban
Biodiversity, Environment, and Forests Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Wetlands, Marine Life Conservation
Wastes Hazardous Wastes
Rivers Indus Waters Treaty
Geography – Note The Geography of Pakistan is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.


Particulars Description
Population 207,774,520 people
Population Growth Rate 2.1
Birth Rate 29.8/1000people
Death Rate 7.5 deaths/1000people
Life Expectancy Rate 67.7 years
Sects Ratio 0–14 years 35.4% (male 35,475,647 / female 33,586,757),15–64 years 60.4% (male 60,766,105 / female 56,886,961),65 and over 4.2% (male 3,890,840 / female 4,325,538) (Jan. 2017)
Nationality Pakistani
Ethnic Groups 44.68% Punjabis, 15.42% Pashtuns, 14.1% Sindhis, 8.38% Saraikis, 7.57% Muhajirs, 3.57% Balochis, 6.28% Others
Religions Islam 96.4% & Christianity, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Atheism, and Others account for 3.6%
Official languages Urdu, English
Recognized regional languages Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Saraiki, Kashmiri, Brahui, Hindko, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Burushaski, Kohistani, Wakhi, Yidgha, Dameli, Kalasha, Gawar-Bati, Domaak
Literacy 57%


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